- The state is to be viewed as a moral person;
- The earth is deemed to be originally owned by all; and
- Perpetual peace ought to be the goal for humanity.
The demand for universal peace is the final end of Kant’s doctrine of the Right – it is what reason dictates should be the proper condition of humanity, a universalisable categorical imperative, and hence all other acts should defer to it. This is an application of Kant’s third formula or principle of autonomy – act as though you were a law-maker in a kingdom of ends. However, in this article Roger Scruton argues that a condition of perpetual peace is that member nations are republics. In the case of tyrannies like Saddam Hussein’s, there is still a requirement to go to war to protect the innocent, and Kantian ethics gives us a solid rational basis for a just war theory.
Read Roger Scruton’s arguments here
See also Dr Alexander Moseley’s excellent summary of Kant’s argument.